[转]根据FreeBSD 7.x做一个精简版的FreeBSD(miniBSD)

时间: 2009-03-28 / 分类: Linux / 浏览次数: 4,930 / 0个评论 发表评论

网上有使用FreeBSD 4.x , FreeBSD 5.x , FreeBSD 6.x 制作miniBSD的具体方法(miniBSD from FreeBSD 4.x), 但我手头只有FreeBSD 7.0r,所以参照FreeBSD 6.x的方法作了一个尝试,原文是刷到CF卡里的,但我没有CF卡,但有U盘,所以刷到了U盘里,可是用U盘启动总是显示出所有寄存器的值之后报BTX halted错误。最后只好使用vmware虚拟出一块ide硬盘测试从FreeBSD 7.0制作的miniBSD。

1.安装FreeBSD 7.0
这个不用多说,你有盘装起来应该不成问题,选择minimal安装即可。

2.安装jail
2.1安装jail软件包
sysinstall进入到配置里,先进入Options,把Install Root改成/usr/jail
然后进入Custom里的Distributions,选中minimal,之后commit安装。
2.2复制文件到jail里
#cp /etc/resolv.conf /usr/jail/etc/resolv.conf
#cp /boot/kernel/kernel /usr/jail/boot/kernel/kernel
#cp /boot/defaults/loader.conf /usr/jail/boot/defaults/loader.conf
#cp /etc/localtime /usr/jail/etc/localtime
#cp /etc/wall_cmos_clock /usr/jail/etc/wall_cmos_clock

3.进入jail
3.1.设置prompt变量,否则你进入到jail之后自己也不知道有没有退出。
编辑/usr/jail/root/.cshrc文件,在最后加上
set prompt = ” miniBSD %~ %# ”
3.2.挂载dev并进入jail
#mount -t devfs devfs /usr/jail/dev
#chroot /usr/jail /bin/csh
此时命令提示符就变成之前设置的miniBSD#了,这样就知道自己在jail里。

4.创建文件夹
这一步可以自己创建,也可以使用脚本文件(脚本文件的原作者在脚本中有注明)。create-minibsd-dirs.sh

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#!/bin/sh
#
# http://www.freedot.org/
 # E-Mail Contact: brian@freedot.org
#
 
MINIBSD_DIR=/usr/minibsd ;
 
if [ -d $MINIBSD_DIR ] ; then
    echo ;
    echo "$MINIBSD_DIR already exists.  Remove the directory" ;
    echo "before running this script." ;
    echo ;
    echo "Exiting..." ;
    echo ;
    exit ;
fi ;
 
mkdir $MINIBSD_DIR ;
cd $MINIBSD_DIR ;
mkdir bin ;
mkdir boot ;
mkdir boot/defaults ;
mkdir dev ;
mkdir etc ;
mkdir etc/defaults ;
mkdir etc/mtree ;
mkdir lib ;
mkdir libexec ;
mkdir mnt ;
mkdir -m 0555 proc ;
mkdir -m 0700 root ;
mkdir sbin ;
mkdir usr ;
mkdir usr/bin ;
mkdir usr/lib ;
mkdir usr/lib/aout ;
mkdir usr/libexec ;
mkdir usr/local ;
mkdir usr/sbin ;
mkdir usr/share ;
mkdir usr/share/misc ;
mkdir var ;
mkdir var/tmp ;
ln -s /var/tmp tmp

5.复制boot里的文件和binary
5.1.复制loader
#cd /boot
#cp -r loader /usr/minibsd/boot/
#cp beastie.4th /usr/minibsd/boot/
#cp frames.4th /usr/minibsd/boot/
#cp screen.4th /usr/minibsd/boot/
#cp defaults/loader.conf /usr/minibsd/boot/defaults/
5.2.复制工具binary
使用一个脚本,mkmini.sh 参数为minibsd6.files
mkmini.sh

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#!/bin/sh
#
# http://www.freedot.org/
 # E-Mail Contact: brian@freedot.org
#
 
if [ ! $1 ] ; then
    echo ;
    echo "Syntax : mkmini.sh <input file>" ;
    echo "Example: mkmini.sh /root/minibsd6.files" ;
    echo ;
    exit ;
fi ;
 
MINIBSDFILES="$1" ;
MINIBSDDIR="/usr/minibsd" ;
 
# Thanks to Nate Nielsen for this!
sed -nE -e 's/^ *([^ #]+) */\1/p' < $MINIBSDFILES | tr ':' '\n' | tar -C / -cvf - -T - | tar -C $MINIBSDDIR -x -f -

minibsd6.files

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# minibsd.files
# by Manuel Kasper <mk@neon1.net>
# List of files required for a very minimal FreeBSD system,
# intended to be parsed by mkmini.pl
#
# Modified by David Courtney <minibsd@ultradesic.com>
# - sbin/rcorder is required for FreeBSD 5.x
# - bin/kenv is required for FreeBSD 6.x
# - Removed ssh files out of the default minibsd6.files
# - Removed named files out of the default minibsd6.files
# - Removed ppp files out of the default minibsd6.files
# - Removed usr/sbin/ndc
# - Removed usr/sbin/ipsend
# - Added usr/bin/cut
# - Added sbin/mount_mfs
# - Added sbin/nextboot
# - Removed the usr/sbin/tset hard link to usr/bin/reset
#
# Lines with colons (':') in them list files that should be hard-linked
# to each other, e.g.
#     bin/link:bin/ln
# instructs mkmini.pl to copy over bin/link, then hard link ln to it.
 
# contents of /boot
boot/boot0
boot/boot1
boot/boot2
boot/defaults/loader.conf
boot/device.hints
boot/loader
boot/loader.4th
boot/loader.help
boot/loader.rc
boot/mbr
boot/support.4th
 
# contents of /libexec
libexec/ld-elf.so.1:usr/libexec/ld-elf.so.1
 
# contents of /bin
bin/[:bin/test
bin/cat
bin/chflags
bin/chio
bin/chmod
bin/cp
bin/csh:bin/tcsh
bin/date
bin/dd
bin/df
bin/domainname
bin/echo
bin/ed:bin/red
bin/expr
bin/hostname
bin/kenv
bin/kill
bin/link:bin/ln
bin/ls
bin/mkdir
bin/mv
bin/pax
bin/ps
bin/pwd
bin/realpath
bin/rm:bin/unlink
bin/rmdir
bin/sh
bin/sleep
bin/stty
bin/sync
 
# contents of /sbin
sbin/adjkerntz
sbin/comcontrol
sbin/dhclient
sbin/dhclient-script
sbin/disklabel
sbin/dmesg
sbin/fastboot:sbin/fasthalt:sbin/halt:sbin/reboot
sbin/fsck
sbin/fsck_ufs:sbin/fsck_ffs:sbin/fsck_4.2bsd
sbin/ifconfig
sbin/init
sbin/ipfw
sbin/kldconfig
sbin/kldload
sbin/kldstat
sbin/kldunload
sbin/ldconfig
sbin/md5
sbin/mdconfig
sbin/mknod
sbin/mdmfs
sbin/mount
sbin/mount_devfs:sbin/mount_fdescfs:sbin/mount_linprocfs:sbin/mount_procfs:sbin/mount_std
sbin/mount_mfs
sbin/mount_nullfs
sbin/mount_umapfs
sbin/mount_unionfs
sbin/natd
sbin/newfs
sbin/nextboot
sbin/nologin
sbin/nos-tun
sbin/rcorder
sbin/ping
sbin/route
sbin/setkey
sbin/shutdown
sbin/slattach
sbin/swapon
sbin/sysctl
sbin/umount
 
# contents of /usr/sbin
usr/bin/at:usr/bin/atq:usr/bin/atrm:usr/bin/batch
usr/bin/awk
usr/bin/basename
usr/bin/bunzip2:usr/bin/bzcat:usr/bin/bzip2
usr/bin/chat
usr/bin/chfn:usr/bin/chpass:usr/bin/chsh
usr/bin/chgrp
usr/bin/cksum
usr/bin/clear
usr/bin/cmp
usr/bin/compress:usr/bin/uncompress
usr/bin/cpio
usr/bin/crontab
usr/bin/cu
usr/bin/cut
usr/bin/dig
usr/bin/dirname
usr/bin/du
usr/bin/ee
usr/bin/egrep:usr/bin/fgrep:usr/bin/grep
usr/bin/env
usr/bin/false
usr/bin/fetch
usr/bin/find
usr/bin/finger
usr/bin/fstat
usr/bin/fsync
usr/bin/ftp
usr/bin/gunzip:usr/bin/gzcat:usr/bin/gzip
usr/bin/gzexe
usr/bin/head
usr/bin/hexdump
usr/bin/id:usr/bin/whoami
usr/bin/ident
usr/bin/killall
usr/bin/last
usr/bin/less:usr/bin/more
usr/bin/limits
usr/bin/lock
usr/bin/lockf
usr/bin/logger
usr/bin/login
usr/bin/logname
usr/bin/mesg
usr/bin/minigzip
usr/bin/mkfifo
usr/bin/mktemp
usr/bin/msgs
usr/bin/netstat
usr/bin/nice
usr/bin/nohup
usr/bin/objformat
usr/bin/openssl
usr/bin/passwd
usr/bin/printf
usr/bin/renice
usr/bin/reset
usr/bin/script
usr/bin/sed
usr/bin/shar
usr/bin/sort
usr/bin/split
usr/bin/su
usr/bin/tail
usr/bin/tar
usr/bin/tee
usr/bin/telnet
usr/bin/tftp
usr/bin/time
usr/bin/top
usr/bin/touch
usr/bin/tput
usr/bin/tr
usr/bin/true
usr/bin/tty
usr/bin/uname
usr/bin/uptime:usr/bin/w
usr/bin/users
usr/bin/uudecode
usr/bin/uuencode
usr/bin/vi
usr/bin/vmstat
usr/bin/wall
usr/bin/who
usr/bin/whois
usr/bin/write
usr/bin/yes
 
# contents of usr/sbin
usr/sbin/arp
usr/sbin/boot0cfg
usr/sbin/chown
usr/sbin/chroot
usr/sbin/cron
usr/sbin/idprio:usr/sbin/rtprio
usr/sbin/inetd
usr/sbin/iostat
usr/sbin/kbdcontrol
usr/sbin/lastlogin
usr/sbin/memcontrol
usr/sbin/mtree
usr/sbin/newsyslog
usr/sbin/ngctl
usr/sbin/nghook
usr/sbin/ntpdate
usr/sbin/pciconf
usr/sbin/pw
usr/sbin/pwd_mkdb
usr/sbin/slstat
usr/sbin/syslogd
usr/sbin/tcpdchk
usr/sbin/tcpdmatch
usr/sbin/tcpdump
usr/sbin/traceroute
usr/sbin/vidcontrol
usr/sbin/vipw
usr/sbin/vnconfig
usr/sbin/watch
 
# contents of /usr/libexec
usr/libexec/atrun
usr/libexec/ftpd
usr/libexec/getty
usr/libexec/telnetd
usr/libexec/tftpd
 
# contents of /usr/share
usr/share/misc/termcap

6.定制kernel
我直接用了general的,省时省力,等boot miniBSD成功之后再定制也不迟,呵呵。
最好把kernel压缩一下,这样可以节省空间。
#cp /boot/kernel/kernel /usr/minibsd/boot/kernel/
#cd /usr/minibsd/boot/kernel
#gzip -9 kernel

7.复制lib
mklibs.sh

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#!/bin/sh
#
# http://www.freedot.org/
# E-Mail Contact: brian@freedot.org
#
 
MINIBSDDIR="/usr/minibsd" ;
 
find -X $MINIBSDDIR ! -name "*.ko" -and -type f -and -perm +111 | xargs ldd -f "%p\n" 2> /dev/null | sort | uniq | sed 's|^/||'

用脚本根据复制的binary来复制lib之后,还差几个lib需要复制。
#cp -p /usr/lib/pam* /usr/minibsd/usr/lib/

8.复制/etc里的配置文件
8.1.设置密码
因为密码文件是由passwd命令产生的,所以先在jail里把密码用passwd设置好,然后再把密码文件复制到miniBSD里。
8.2.复制/etc
这个是原本是freebsd6的,7里面我已经修改过了。
copy-etc-6.sh

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#!/bin/sh
#
# http://www.freedot.org/
 # E-Mail Contact: brian@freedot.org
#
 
DEST=/usr/minibsd/etc ;
 
if [ ! -d $DEST ] ; then
    echo ;
    echo "$DEST does not exist.";
    echo "For safety reasons, this script will not create the" ;
    echo "directory for you.  Make sure you are running this script" ;
    echo "from *within* your FreeBSD jail!" ;
    echo ;
    echo "If you know you are in the right place, type the following:" ;
    echo ;
    echo "mkdir $DEST" ;
    echo ;
    echo "...and then run this script again."
    echo ;
    echo "Exiting..." ;
    echo ;
    exit ;
fi ;
 
if [ -f $DEST/auth.conf ] ; then
        echo ;
        echo "It appears as though the files may have already been" ;
    echo "copied.  For safety reasons, the script will now exit." ;
        echo "If you want to run this script, you'll need to delete" ;
        echo "the files in $DEST first." ;
        echo ;
        echo "Exiting..." ;
    echo ;
        exit ;
fi ;
 
cp /etc/auth.conf $DEST
cp /etc/crontab $DEST
cp /etc/defaults/devfs.rules $DEST/defaults
cp /etc/defaults/periodic.conf $DEST/defaults
cp /etc/defaults/rc.conf $DEST/defaults
#cp /etc/disktab $DEST
if [ ! -f /etc/fstab ] ; then
    touch /etc/fstab ;
fi ;
cp /etc/fstab $DEST
#cp /etc/ftpusers $DEST
cp /etc/gettytab $DEST
cp /etc/group $DEST
if [ ! -f /etc/host.conf ] ; then
    cd $DEST ;
    ln -s /tmp/host.conf ;
else
    cp /etc/host.conf $DEST ;
fi ;
cp /etc/hosts $DEST
cp /etc/hosts.allow $DEST
#cp /etc/hosts.equiv $DEST
#cp /etc/hosts.lpd $DEST
cp /etc/inetd.conf $DEST
cp /etc/localtime $DEST
cp /etc/login.access $DEST
cp /etc/login.conf $DEST
cp /etc/master.passwd $DEST
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.include.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.local.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.root.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.sendmail.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.usr.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.var.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.x11-4.dist $DEST/mtree
cp /etc/mtree/BSD.x11.dist $DEST/mtree
#cp /etc/namedb/PROTO.localhost.rev $DEST/namedb
#cp /etc/namedb/make-localhost $DEST/namedb
#cp /etc/namedb/named.conf $DEST/namedb
#cp /etc/namedb/named.root $DEST/namedb
cp /etc/network.subr $DEST
cp /etc/networks $DEST
cp /etc/newsyslog.conf $DEST
if [ ! -f /etc/nsswitch.conf ] ; then
    cd $DEST ;
    ln -s /tmp/nsswitch.conf ;
else
    cp /etc/nsswitch.conf $DEST ;
fi ;
cp -R /etc/pam.d $DEST
cp /etc/passwd $DEST
cp /etc/profile $DEST
cp /etc/protocols $DEST
cp /etc/pwd.db $DEST
cp /etc/rc $DEST
if [ -f /etc/rc.conf ] ; then
    cp /etc/rc.conf $DEST ;
fi ;
cp -R /etc/rc.d $DEST
cp /etc/rc.firewall $DEST
#cp /etc/rc.i368 $DEST
#cp /etc/rc.local $DEST
#cp /etc/rc.network $DEST
#cp /etc/rc.serial $DEST
cp /etc/rc.shutdown $DEST
cp /etc/rc.subr $DEST
cp /etc/resolv.conf $DEST
#cp /etc/security $DEST
cp /etc/services $DEST
cp /etc/shells $DEST
#cp /etc/skeykeys $DEST
cp /etc/spwd.db $DEST
#cp /etc/ssh/primes $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/ssh_config $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config $DEST/ssh
#cp /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf $DEST/ssl
cp /etc/sysctl.conf $DEST
cp /etc/syslog.conf $DEST
if [ ! -f $DEST/termcap ] ; then
    ln -s /usr/share/misc/termcap $DEST/termcap ;
fi ;
cp /etc/ttys $DEST
if [ -f /etc/wall_cmos_clock ] ; then
    cp /etc/wall_cmos_clock $DEST ;
fi ;

9.设置配置文件
9.1.把/usr/minibsd/etc/fstab作一下修改,因为当用硬盘启动miniBSD的时候,硬盘是被认作ad0的,设置成只读,这样对于CF卡之类有好处,不至于卡很快报废,呵呵。内容如下:
/dev/ad0s1a / ufs ro 1 1
9.2.对于/usr/minibsd/etc/rc.conf需要进行设置,根据自己实际情况设置,
因为没有swap,所以dumpdev=”NO”,另外要使用到内存盘,因为我们的/文件系统是read only的。这里可以使用rc.diskless2,有空我研究一下。我的内容如下:
hostname=”jojo.minibsd”
sshd_enabled=”NO”
usbd_enabled=”NO”
sendmail_enabled=”NO”
inetd_enabled=”NO”
portmap_enabled=”NO”
update_motd=”NO”
varsize=8192
varmfs=”YES”
tmpmfs=”YES”
tmpsize=8192
dumpdev=”NO”
9.3.为了跳过启动时的十秒等待,可以编辑/usr/minibsd/boot/boot.rc这个文件,加入如下这行:
autoboot 0

10.打包miniBSD
#cd /usr/minibsd
#tar cfvz /usr/minibsd-7.tar.gz *

11.把miniBSD复制到硬盘(CF卡或者U盘)上(如果你想用dd命令把磁盘文件直接刷到硬盘上,直接跳到12)
因为我的主板USB启动有些问题,可能是FreeBSD的loader跟我的主板不兼容,所以我使用IDE硬盘,如果你是U盘的话,下面的ad1和ad0都改成da0即可。
10.1.格式化硬盘,因为ad0是第一块IDE,所以新接上去的这里是ad1。
#fdisk -BI /dev/ad1
11.2.创建一个slice,使用整个硬盘空间。
#bsdlabel -B -w ad1s1
11.3.创建filesystem。
#newfs -U /dev/ad1s1a
11.4.挂载到/mnt。
#mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt
11.5.把刚才打包的miniBSD全解包到/mnt目录。
#cd /mnt
#tar xfvzP /usr/minibsd-7.tar.gz
11.6.设置成可引导,即把boot0程序写进硬盘的mbr
#boot0cfg -v -B ad1
11.7.跳到13

12.把miniBSD刷到硬盘(CF卡或者U盘)上
12.1首先获得要刷的磁盘大小
#bsdlabel -w -An-B ad1 auto | grep sectors/unit
得到一个sector的数量。
12.2创建磁盘文件(内容用零填充),[number of sector]就是刚才得到的数字
#dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/minibsd-disk.bin bs=512 count=[number of sector]
12.3创建一个minibsd-disk.bin文件的vnode
#mdconfig -f /usr/minibsd-disk.bin -u 0
12.4现在我们对/dev/md0这个vnode的操作就等于是对磁盘文件minbsd-disk.bin的操作了。
#fdisk -BI /dev/md0
#bsdlabel -B -w md0s1
#newfs -U md0s1a
#mount /dev/md0s1a /mnt
这几步格式化了vnode,创建了一个slice和一个ufs文件系统,并挂载到/mnt目录下。
12.5把我们的minibsd解包到/mnt
#cd /mnt
#tar xfvzP /usr/minibsd-7.tar.gz
12.6对vnode的操作结束,清理一下
#cd /
#umount /mnt
#mdconfig -d -u 0
12.7现在可以用dd命令把装有miniBSD的minibsd-disk.bin文件刷到硬盘上了
#dd if=/usr/minibsd-disk.bin of=/dev/ad1 bs=8k

13.用装好的minibsd引导
把这块装有miniBSD的硬盘接到电脑上启动吧。

我这样做出来的miniBSD打包后9M,这样的一个精简的Freebsd能干什么呢?加入自己想要的,像m0n0wall和pfSense一样做个路由不错。不过这可是DIY的哦。

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